Working as a research nurse at the Ohio State University, I often encounter patients that
are from different cultures. Ohio State University is known for their advance research in
Leukemia. I had the pleasure of working on the Phase 1-Leukemia team for two years
and I recall one patient that would forever change the way I interact with patients. It was
at this moment in time, I learned how my own biases affected my patient care. In the ever
changing world, nurses need to understand culture awareness and cultural sensitivity in
order to become better care givers. All human beings have basic needs and desire but it is
how we perceive these needs and desires that are considered different. This paper will
provide insight in which a nurse found the way to navigate through a patient encounter to
provide the care that her patient so desperately needed and deserved at that moment and
Understanding cultural differences is imperative in today’s society. It is estimated that a
nurse will have a fifty percent chance of taking care of a minority patient (Davidhizar-
Giger & Hannenpluf, 2005). Culture is learned patterns of behavior responses acquired
over a period of time and include our values, beliefs, norms, habits, art, and our life ways
that are accepted among a particular group (Polan & Tay.
. middle of paper.
to others. In other words, we are becoming culturally competent. Learning to be
culturally competent will improve our patient outcomes. In the end, isn’t that what we
Davidhizar, R. Giger, J. & Hannenpluff, L. (2005). Your Continuing Education Topic 3
2005: Using the Giger-Davidhizare Transcultural Assessment Model (GDTAM) in
Providing Patient Care. Journal of Practical Nursing.56.1 (Spring 2006) 37-43.
Polan, E. & Taylor, D. (2011). Journey across the life span: Human development and
health promotion. (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
Taylor, R. ( 1998). Check your Cultural Competence. Nursing Management 29.8 (Aug
Transcultural Nursing: The Hispanic American Community (2012). Retrieved from
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Diversity and Cultural Competence in Family Therapy Essay - Diversity and Cultural Competence in Family Therapy A therapist will face problems, issues and client troubles everyday. The professional must understand how their client relates to the world around them. These feelings and ideas affect how the client sees the problem and how they respond to their situation. Their actions, in turn, have bearing on individual thoughts, needs, and emotions. The therapist must be aware of the client's history, values, and culture in order to provide effective therapy. [tags: Psychology]
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Cultural Competency in Healthcare Essay -. However, Campinha-Bacote (2005) stated a troublesome question remains, how does the nurse deliver effective patient-centered care when the patient’s health beliefs, practices, and values are in direct conflict with medical and nursing guidelines. It is important to understand the need to prepare nurses with a set of culturally competent skills that will enhance the delivery of patient-centered care (Campinha-Bacote, 2005). According to Campinha-Bacote (2005), there are four arguments for the need of cultural competency in healthcare provision: improving quality of services and outcomes; meeting legislative, regulatory, and accreditation mandates; gaining a competitive edge in the mark. [tags: social justice, human rights]
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Cultural Diversity in Health Care Essay - The 21st century is the era of technology and modernization. Through extremely efficient and rapid communication systems, businesses are being conducted across the globe from one single point of command and coordination. Through strong and reliable networks, it is very easy for a person to be in one corner of the world in the morning and in the other corner in the evening. Processes are becoming more and more effective and efficient and the world is coming closer as if it were a global village. This phenomenon is called globalization. [tags: Health Care]
Essay on Multicultural Competency - Ethical and Multicultural Self-Assessment Importance of ethical and multicultural competency to the practice of professional psychology is to “know thy cultural self” is the recommended motto for trainees with regard to two developmental tasks: self-exploration about one's own cultural heritage and understanding and valuing the differences of others” (Roysircar, 2004). Roysircar (2004) said that being able to embrace diversity into your approach to assessment and discretion is an essential part of the process of treatment and its outcomes. [tags: cultural awareness, miscommunication]
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Cultural Competence and Intercultural Communication Essay - When individuals or groups from different cultures communicate, this process is called intercultural communication. The transaction process of listening and responding to people from different cultural backgrounds can be challenging. The greater the difference in culture between two people, the greater the potential of misunderstanding and mistrust. Misunderstanding and miscommunication occur between people from different cultures because of different coding rules and cultural norms, which play a major role in shaping the patterns of interaction (Jandt, 2012). [tags: cultural training, nurses, patients]
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Cultural Competence and the Disabled Essay - We are born into our ethnicity, race, gender, and culture. They are a part of who we are when we enter this world. One of the few diversities that may be acquired later on in our lives is disability. All of us, regardless of where we come from, what we believe, or who we are, can be afflicted with some form of disability in our life time through disease, accident, or other conditions that render us incapable of caring for ourselves in the same way that was possible before. This knowledge creates fear and is one of the primary reasons for the prejudice and stigma our society places on the disabled. [tags: Emotional Needs, Human Family]
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Essay about Cultural Competence, Changing Personal Perceptions and Attitudes -. Beck and colleagues found that students had the best improvements in areas of applying concepts using statements, for example, I can counsel for risk factors based on________ (sexual orientation, gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) (Beck, Scheel, De Oliveira, and Hopp, 2013). Beck and his colleagues concluded that long-term repeated exposure to cultural competency in the universities curriculum increased student’s cultural competency and changed students’ personal perceptions and attitudes toward discrimination and prejudice (Beck, Scheel, De Oliveira, and Hopp, 2013). [tags: Cultural Variations, Oppression, Discrimination]
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Cultural Competence Essay - The number of college students who participate in study abroad programs continue to increase every year. According to Open Doors 2011, 270,604 US students studied abroad for academic credit in 2009/2010. This is an increase of 3.9% over the previous year. U.S. student participation in study abroad has more than tripled over the past two decades (Institute of International Education, 2011). There is a growing trend toward shorter study abroad programs. Open Doors defines short-term study abroad programs as those that occur during the summer or are eight weeks or shorter. [tags: Educational Issues, college, culture]
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Cultural Competence Essay - Assignment 5 Cultural competence has to do with one’s culture. Culture affects among other factors, how children are raised, how families communicate, what is considered normal or abnormal, ways of coping with issues, the way we dress, when and where we seek medical treatment, and so forth. I should know because I come from a very cultural home where it is considered bad to talk to a male doctor about anything gynecological. Cultural Competence is important for many reasons. First, it can help develop culturally sensitive practices which can in turn help reduce barriers that affect treatment in health care settings. [tags: Health Care ]
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Running Head. CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN ADDICTION COUNSELING
Cultural competence in Addiction Counseling
[Institution 's Name]
Cultural competence in Addiction Counseling
Most of the literature on the psychological and familial correlates of work addiction is anecdotal. Krestan (2002. who collected more than 100 anecdotal self-reports from self-professed Addicts in his clinical practice. suggested a pattern among work-addicted individuals such that compulsive Chemical Dependency--often originating in family of origin dysfunction and being carried into adulthood--leads to broken marriages and brittle social relationships "The overabundance of work
takes precedence over everyone and everything else in the lives of Addicts. Excessive work prevents them from forming and maintaining intimate relationships and close friendships (Kresten 2002
Moreover. both the clinical and empirical literature describes the adult addicted as having elevated depression and anxiety relative to nonwork-addicted populations. The primary responsibility of addiction counselors is providing appropriate therapy for their clients. Providing the best quality treatment is a serious business--life and death decisions can be part of the daily routine for addiction counselors Sometimes. the work itself and the relationships with clients physicians. administration. and other employees can be stressful. Fun at work. at the appropriate time and place. can relieve much of the Social construction on the job. Humor can dispel fears. promote healing. and create a pleasant workplace environment. For counseling personnel. the secret to having fun at work is to focus on humor
An atmosphere of professionalism should prevail in the treatment center yet this professionalism can include humor at appropriate times and places. There has been continuous controversy regarding the use of humor in various situations. particularly in a therapeutic setting. However Mosak (2003 ) made a strong case for the personal. as well as healing benefits of appropriate humor. He described a theory of humor as being nonpathologic. and more important. as a contribution to the evolution of social interest
If humor is to be used effectively to encourage client change. the central importance of the therapeutic relationship must be determined Humor should be spontaneous. but never used at the expense of a client 's feelings. Laughter can be beneficial however. caution must be used to avoid generating negative feelings
`Power over` vs. `Power to ' Theory by Jo-Ann Kresten
Using Power Over in psychotherapy does not take away the seriousness of therapy. The goal of using Power Over should be to help a client become more integrated and more spontaneous in relationships. Power Over can be used creatively to facilitate development of the psychotherapeutic interaction. The use of Power Over is recommended in individual marital. and family therapy. Each of these therapeutic approaches is used in addiction counseling. However. group therapy is the primary mode of therapeutic intervention with most addiction diss
Kresten indicated the need for caution in using Power Over in group therapy because the potential for counter transference is high and narcissistic injuries can be inflicted. However. he also emphasized the important role of Power Over in healthy emotional development in group therapy. He stated.
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Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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Diversity based on ethnic background, religion, race, language and sexual orientation is skyrocketing each day. Multiculturalism specifically is on the rise due to globalization. This puts responsibility on the health care providers to take into consideration the diversity they face in their workplace and practice accordingly. The main aim of the health care providers, especially nurses should be to provide maximum holistic and culturally competent care to their clients. To achieve this level, we need to always keep in mind to take care of the patient as they want you to take care of them (Srivastava, 2007). If patients are considered as the centre of care by giving due respect to their values, beliefs, culture and viewpoints, nurses as well as the client will be satisfied with the care. However, sometimes a difference in values and beliefs can lead to moral and ethical conflicts between the patient, family and the nurse (Srivastava, 2007). Hence, in this paper, the focus will be laid on the emic and etic viewpoint and analyzing them through the culture care framework to overcome the varying values.
In my previous clinical experience when I was in OB, I had to care for a Muslim woman. I was with her throughout her experience of labor and then postpartum. The patient, (Mrs. AB for this paper), was also supported by her husband and in-laws. In Mrs. AB's culture, women are expected to cover their heads and sometimes even wear a 'veil' or 'hijab' in front of their male family members. When Mrs. AB had to go outside, even as near as the breastfeeding classes on the unit, she had to wear the whole veil on top of her clothes. When I noticed her wearing the 'hijab', I asked if it was mandatory for her, and she replied that it was part of their culture and women are expected and sometimes forced to wear the veil. When I heard and saw this, I was pinched by this cultural practice and thought as to why she is supposed to wear the veil, which is physically inconvenient. Then I kept observing minor cultural practices which were different than mine and my values. I then talked to her about wearing a 'veil'. She explained that some families are very strict or rather 'conservative' regarding these issues. It was also interesting to notice that the husband did not accompany Mrs. AB during the delivery, even though he was asked to. In their culture it is expected that a female accompany the pregnant woman; most of the time mother or mother in law. Moreover, in their culture the women or their family would consider it very disrespectful if an unknown male/doctor/nurse comes to visit the woman. Muslim women would only prefer their doctors and nurses to be female, in front of whom they could remove their 'hijab'. Mrs. AB told me that I could measure the intensity of this strictness from the recent news that a father killed his 16 year daughter in Brampton just because she had arguments with him regarding her not wearing the 'veil' at school (Mitchell, & Wilkes, 2007). I was completely dumbstruck by this news. It made a deep impression on me about the importance of various cultural beliefs families have. From then, I know that I should not neglect such cultural practices but always understand the significance these practices hold for the members of that culture.
As nurses, it is crucial for us to recognize the difference in viewpoints and how the thinking of people from different background are impacted by their culture. In my culture, equal rights and equal status has to be given to women as men. Women are expected to be stronger both mentally/emotionally and physically. We are taught that the women should have the full right to express themselves; whereas the concept of the 'veil' or 'hijab' was completely against my values. To me, the 'hijab' was a mere obstacle in expressing oneself, their beliefs and especially their expressions. In my view, the veils give the impression of women being inferior to the men and different from everyone. I just could not understand the whole concept of the 'hijab'. It was against my values and beliefs that even women themselves accepted the 'marginalization'. Such opposing feelings against their attire were not going to be beneficial in the care I provided to Mrs. AB. Hence, as I went through this thought process; I saw my patient and realized that the bottom line is that all are humans and they need to be treated equally with the same respect.
On the other hand, what to me looked as an 'alien' and personally an unacceptable custom, it was totally normal and part of lifestyle for the Mrs AB and many other women belonging to this culture. While different cultures may perceive the meaning of 'health' and 'illness' differently and expect care that meets their requirements (Dogan, Tschudin, Hot & Ozkan, 2009), it is necessary to analyze values of our own culture and the other individuals. These two perspectives are called the emic and the etic viewpoint. "Emic knowledge comes directly from cultural informants as they know and practice care with their values and beliefs in their unique cultural contexts. Emic knowledge was the natural, local, indigenous root care values. In contrast, etic care knowledge was derived from outsider views of non-local or non-indigenous care values and beliefs such as those of professional nurses" (Leininger,Â 2007, p. 10). These two concepts form the pillars of the culture care framework which is based on the Madeline Leininger's Theory of diversity and universality (Srivastava, 2007).
As nurses, it is crucial for us to recognize the difference in viewpoints and how ones thinking is impacted by their culture. In my culture, it is tried that equal rights and status be given to women. Women are expected to be stronger both mentally/emotionally and physically. We are taught that women should have the full right to express themselves; whereas the concept of the 'veil' or 'hijab' was completely against my values. To me, the 'hijab' was a mere obstacle in expressing oneself, their beliefs and expressions. In my view, the veils give the impression of women being inferior to the men and different from everyone. I just could not understand the whole concept of the 'hijab' and why would someone go through this trouble of getting ready. It was against my values and beliefs that even women themselves accepted the 'marginalization'. Such opposing feelings against their attire were not going to be beneficial in the care I provided to Mrs. AB. Hence, as I went through this thought process; I saw my patient and realized that the bottom line is that all are humans.
The term 'Cultural competence' is used to refer to the "multi-cultural knowledge base that nurses need, together with the ability to apply such knowledge in practice" (Jirwe, Gerrish, & Emami, 2006, p. 6). To provide cultural competent care, nurses should utilize the culture care framework that provides a guide for health care providers and reach to enlightenment of one's own culture, other's culture and how it influences the perception and solution of an issue. The first element that comprises the framework is, 'cultural sensitivity'. It includes the concept of cultural awareness by being appreciative and sensitive to different beliefs, values and problem solving strategies (Srivastava, 2007). It includes both getting to know the other's and our own culture. It is evident that we as nurses would certainly not be able to know and understand the culture in-depth; however a brief idea should exist about the prevailing difference. For example, in the scenario provided earlier, the reflection from the emic and etic viewpoint is our awareness of ourselves and also my patient's culture. As health care providers, we are expected to respect the choices our patients make, but we are not obliged to leave our own beliefs and follow someone else's culture. In addition, the aim of being culturally sensitive is also that we recognize our biases and assumptions against a specific culture, but we cannot label or stereotype all the individuals in that culture, as each person is unique (Srivastava, 2007).
The second element of the framework is cultural knowledge. Cultural knowledge is to gain as much information about what individuals in that culture believe in. Hence, the culture's lifestyle, communication, family involvement, personal space and diet should be not be forgotten (Srivastava, 2007). In the scenario, communication with Mrs. AB should be non-judgmental, we should not provide advice or even not doubt what they believe in. It should also be kept in consideration that not just one or two, but many family members would arrive to meet the patient and may even bring gifts for the patient's wellbeing (Wehbe-Alamah, 2008). Nurses with a welcoming nature should give adequate time to the patient and family to bond. Muslim women would also expect that they have their 'hijab' when any other male member comes to visit her. Women may also resist accepting 'pericare' or would hesitate to change in front of someone else. Moreover, taking care of their diet is an important aspect, because they usually like 'halal' meat which means, slaughtered meat (Wehbe-Alamah, 2008). While caring for patients, bringing into light all the minute cultural practices, respecting and giving the opportunity to practice their cultural beliefs shows our acceptance and nurturance of their culture.
The third element of the framework is 'cultural resources'. To gain more knowledge about the culture and have answers to all the needs of the patients, extra resources need to be employed. Individual level resources are by seeking information, reflecting on experiences and developing diverse connections. Whereas, organization resources include the use of interpreter, multi-religious and spiritual services (Srivastava, 2007). For example, in the scenario, I and Mrs. AB knew the same language, so it was easy for her to communicate her needs. Therefore, patients who belong to specific culture or religion could be paired up with the nurse or physician of the same culture. This will help the care to be provided smoothly as all the patient's needs will be understood and addressed. Also, reflecting on experiences and building learning upon them, gaining information from colleagues or books or internet about the culture would be helpful. However, the most reliable source can also be the client and his/her family. So just showing the enthusiasm to learn and apply in our practice is one step towards providing culturally competent care to patients.
There are a myriad of cultures present in our society and this culture care framework allows us to view them with respect. It allows us analyze one's own beliefs and that of the patient and be educated about the varying viewpoints. As nurses, we are then responsible to integrate that teaching regarding cultures in our practice while caring for diverse clients and families. In doing so, we will be considered more trustworthy by our patients which eventually will lead to satisfied patients, satisfied nurses by their contribution to the care and positive patient outcomes. The relationship between a patient and nurse acquires increased stability and stronger bond if we treat them as person and understand that every person has a culture and they hold a great importance for the patient (CNO, 2009).
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Many students decide to pursue their education after graduating from high schools. Physical therapy is one of the subjects that catch their interest, but they need to write a quality and original generic essay when applying for this course. If you want to be accepted to a physical therapy program, you need to get more information about effective guidelines that will help you manage this process and succeed. The good news is that you can find many paper writing services ready to complete this assignment for you, but make sure that they are credible and affordable. For example, our team of experienced academic authors can handle any task for you fast and provide an excellent quality.
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