Essay, Research Paper
The British comedy Yes Minister is a brilliant satire in which the characters are creatively manipulated to form a humorous program. It deals with the wheeling and dealing of political life behind the scenes and attempts to expose its true nature. Although the series is set within the British political scene, it deals with political games and clashes between politicians and the civil service that could be found almost anywhere in the world.
Yes Minister started airing in 1980 on BBC 2 with each episode running for about 30 minutes. With its astounding success it ran for six years until Jim Hacker finally became what he always dreamt of throughout the course of the series: Prime Minister. At this point the BBC started a new series called Yes Prime Minister. The series is still shown on television today and people continue to enjoy the satirical British humour.
In the third season of Yes Minister and for the first time on 11 November 1982, two years into the series, ran an episode called Equal Opportunities. As its title suggests it encompasses the issues to do with Equal Employment Opportunities, focusing on the Civil Services and their attitudes towards women in the workforce. As in other episodes of Yes Minister, Equal Opportunities aims to educate and summon change, while simultaneously entertaining the audience it is targeted towards.
Clever incorporation of a variety of different types of humour creates a jovial fa?ade for the underlying issues. In Equal Opportunities it has allowed the exploration of each sexes emotions and thoughts towards each other in the workforce.
A twist of irony occurs when Sarah announces that she is leaving the civil services. She explains to Jim Hacker that she wants a job that will appreciate her as a person and where she personally can achieve things and therefore has accepted a job at a merchant bank. She is absolutely not charmed by the fact that she would be part of a 25% quota and does not appreciate being patronised:
“Quite honestly, Minister, I want a job where I don’t spend endless hours circulating information that isn’t relevant, about subjects that don’t matter to people who aren’t interested. I want a job where there is achievement rather than merely activity. I am tired of pushing paper. I want to be able to point to something and say: ‘I did that.’”
Sarcasm is used to cunningly say what is really meant without saying it straight out. What it does say straight out often defiantly contradicts its true meaning:
“We must, in my view, always have the right to promote the best man for the job, regardless of sex.”
Sir Humphrey makes out that he’s being fair but by calling everyone ‘man’ and then saying ‘regardless of sex’ it appears as a contradiction.
The use of dialogue allows the viewer a deeper insight into the characters involved in the show. While the male characters in Yes Minister deny being sexist and claim to be
looking out for the best interests of women in the workforce, it is obvious through their use of sexist dialogue that this is not the case. Terms such as ‘feminist touch’ and ‘dear lady’ are frequently used when referring to women throughout the script. Sir Humphrey often uses circumlocution to confuse the issues. Euphemisms are used by many of the Public Servants involved to get around an issue or to make the issue sound better than what it really is:
“‘…a pause to regroup, a lull in which to reassess the situation and discuss alternative strategies, a space of time for the mature reflection and deliberation.’
‘Yes, you mean drop the whole scheme.’”
Attitudes of people who work in the Public Services are cross-examined and mocked. It is shown that many of the people within the Public Services are lazy, only care about their own success, and believe that advancements happen as a matter of turn:
“Minister! It takes time to do things!”
This plays on the fact that because so many people in the Services are caught up doing useless things or are so slow and lazy, it takes a long time to achieve anything major. Jim Hacker mentions Alexander the Great ruling at a very young age, and Sir Humphrey remarks that Alexander the Great would have been a very bad civil servant.
Two kinds of people are particularly characterised in Yes Minister. The first is Sir Humphrey, a sexist chauvinistic male. Sir Humphrey is particularly attacked in this episode of Yes Minister because his attitudes and opinions are the type that make Equal Employment Opportunities an issue in the first place.
The second is Hacker who is only concerned with personal success and achievements. He wants people to look at his life and say, ‘Wow, that guy was amazing… look what he did.’ The only time principles came into play was where it could help him benefit somehow:
“‘You mean you are actually going to do something out of pure principles?’
‘Yes, principles make good vote winners.’”
The three main characters James (or Jim) Hacker MP, Sir Humphrey Appleby and Bernard Wooley are in each of the episodes of Yes Minister and Yes Prime Minister. Since most of the script and viewing time is devoted to them they have been carefully selected for the roles. They act out the script making it spring alive, working as a team to achieve the desired outcome: humour.
Although the program is not as relevant to today’s society as it was when it was first released, many of the issues still hold true. When it was first released Yes Minister was an extremely bold satire as the issues of Equal Employment Opportunity were still relatively unmentioned. Now, in the 90’s there has been much focus on Equal Employment Opportunity and women’s rights and gradually women have been gaining an equal stance in the workforce.
Yes Minister has earned its notoriety and fame as a satirical comedy. Its combination of hilarious script and implied themes achieves a victorious blend of wit and relevance to its audience. For the time Yes Minister has been showing on television it has attracted a large following of spectators which it has entertained time and time again. Its popularity has made it an all-time favourite and after 19 years of having been on air it continues to be shown around the world.
Yes Minister Is A Successful Satire. Discuss.
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Scarlet Letter Study Guide Ch 13+
The Scarlet Letter study guide questions: Chapters 13-24.
The British comedy Yes Minister is a brilliant satire in which the characters are creatively manipulated to form a humorous program. It deals with the wheeling and dealing of political life behind the scenes and attempts to expose its true nature. Although the series is set within the British political scene, it deals with political games and clashes between politicians and the civil service that could be found almost anywhere in the world. Yes Minister started airing in 1980
Hamlet Hamlet dares us, along with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, to "pluck out the heart of my mystery." This mystery marks the essence of Hamlet's character as, in spite of our.
on BBC 2 with each episode running for about 30 minutes. With its astounding success it ran for six years until Jim Hacker finally became what he always dreamt of throughout the course of the series: Prime Minister. At this point the BBC started a new series called Yes Prime Minister. The series is still shown on television today and people continue to enjoy the satirical British humour. In the third season of Yes Minister and for the first time on 11 November 1982, two years into the series, ran an episode called Equal Opportunities. As its title suggests it encompasses the issues to do with Equal Employment Opportunities, focusing on the Civil Services and their attitudes towards women in the workforce. As in other episodes of Yes Minister, Equal Opportunities aims to educate and summon change, while simultaneously entertaining the audience it is targeted towards. Clever incorporation of a variety of different types of humour creates a jovial fa�ade for the underlying issues. In Equal Opportunities it has allowed the exploration of each sexes emotions and thoughts towards each other in the workforce. A twist of irony occurs when Sarah announces that she is leaving the civil services. She explains to Jim Hacker that she wants a job that will appreciate her as a person and where she personally can achieve things and therefore has accepted a job at a merchant bank. She is absolutely not charmed by the fact that she would be part of a 25% quota and does not appreciate being patronised: “Quite honestly, Minister, I want a job where I don’t spend endless hours circulating information that isn’t relevant, about subjects that don’t matter to people who aren’t interested. I want a job where there is achievement rather than merely activity. I am tired of pushing paper. I want to be able to point to something and say: ‘I did that.’” ;Sarcasm is used to cunningly say what is really meant without saying it straight out. What it does say straight out often defiantly contradicts its true meaning: “We must, in my view, always have the right to promote the best man for the job, regardless of sex.” ;Sir Humphrey makes out that he’s being fair but by calling everyone ‘man’ ;and then saying ‘regardless of sex’ ;it appears as a contradiction. The use of dialogue allows the viewer a deeper insight into the characters involved in the show. While the male characters in Yes Minister deny being sexist and claim to be looking out for the best interests of women in the workforce, it is obvious through their use of sexist dialogue that this is not the case. Terms such as ‘feminist touch’ ;and ‘dear
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The series commences in the wake of a general election in which the incumbents have been defeated by the opposition to which Jim Hacker MP belongs—the party affiliation is not stated, although his party emblem is clearly not Conservative or Labour. The Prime Minister offers Hacker the position of Minister of Administrative Affairs, which he accepts. Hacker goes to his department and meets his Permanent Secretary, Sir Humphrey Appleby. and his Principal Private Secretary, Bernard Woolley. While Appleby is outwardly obsequious towards the new minister, he is prepared to defend the status quo at all costs. Woolley is sympathetic towards Hacker but as Appleby reminds him, his civil servant superiors will have much to say about the course of his future career, while ministers do not usually stay long in one department. Many of the episodes revolve around proposals backed by Hacker but frustrated by Appleby, and many others revolve around proposals promoted by the latter but rejected by Hacker, and which Sir Humphrey attempts by all means necessary to persuade Hacker to accept. They do occasionally join forces in order to achieve a common goal, such as preventing the closure of their department or dealing with a diplomatic incident.
As the series revolves around the inner workings of central government, most of the scenes take place in private locations, such as offices and exclusive members' clubs. Lynn says "there was not a single scene set in the House of Commons because government does not take place in the House of Commons. Some politics and much theatre takes place there. Government happens in private. As in all public performances, the real work is done in rehearsal, behind closed doors. Then the public and the House are shown what the government wishes them to see." [ 4 ]
The different ideals and self-interested motives of the characters are frequently contrasted. Whilst Hacker occasionally approaches an issue from a sense of idealism and a desire to be seen to improve things, he ultimately sees his re-election and elevation to higher office as the only measures of his success. Accordingly, he must appear to the voters to be effective and responsive to the public will. To his party (and, in the first incarnation, the Prime Minister) he must act as a loyal and effective party member. Sir Humphrey, on the other hand, genuinely believes that it is the Civil Service that knows what is best for the country (a belief shared by his bureaucratic colleagues) which is usually what is best for the Civil Service. Most of Sir Humphrey's actions are motivated by his wish to maintain the prestige, power, and influence he enjoys inside a large, bureaucratic organisation and also to preserve the numerous perks of his position: automatic honours, a substantial income, a fixed retirement age, a large pension, and the practical impossibility of being made redundant or being sacked. In fact, a good deal of the tension in their relationship comes from Hacker's awareness that the politicians are liable to lose their jobs if civil service ineptitude comes to public attention.
In private industry if you screw things up you get the boot; in the civil service if you screw things up I get the boot! [ 5 ]
Hacker sees his task as the initiation of departmental reforms and economies, a reduction of the level of bureaucracy and staff numbers in the Civil Service, and governing the country according to his party's policies. To do so, or to at least look as if he is, would be a vote-winner. Conversely, Sir Humphrey sees his role as ensuring that politics is kept out of government as much as possible and that the status quo is upheld as a matter of principle. He attempts to block any move that seeks either to prevent the further expansion of the civil service or to reduce the complexity of its bureaucracy.
Much of the show's humour thus derives from the antagonism between Cabinet ministers (who believe they are in charge) and the members of the British Civil Service who really run the country. A typical episode centers on Jim Hacker's suggesting and pursuing a reform and Sir Humphrey's ingenious blocking of all Hacker's lines of approach. More often than not Sir Humphrey prevents him from achieving his goal while mollifying Hacker with some positive publicity or at least a means to cover up his failure. Occasionally, however, Hacker does get his way. Sir Humphrey occasionally resorts to tactics such as calling a policy "courageous". He and Hacker both know that, in Sir Humphrey's view, a controversial policy will lose votes, whilst a courageous one will lose the election.
Initially, Woolley naively sees his job as the disinterested implementation of the Minister's policies but gradually finds that this conflicts with his institutional duty to the department and sometimes (since Sir Humphrey is responsible for formally assessing Woolley's performance) his own potential career development. [ 1 ] Consequently, another recurring scenario is one where Bernard must "walk the tightrope"–-that is, arbitrate between his two conflicting duties by resorting to elaborate verbosity (much like Sir Humphrey) to avoid choosing one over the other.
The first series featured Frank Weisel, Hacker's political adviser (played by Neil Fitzwiliam in the television series, and later by Bill Nighy in the radio series). The first syllable of his name is pronounced "Wise", but Sir Humphrey and Bernard persistently call him "Weasel". Weisel does not appear after the first series, following his convenient acceptance of a position on a quango (Quasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation) tasked, appropriately, with investigating the appointment of other quangos and the government's honours system and 'jobs for the boys'. [ 1 ] After the third series, following Sir Humphrey's promotion to Cabinet Secretary. Hacker becomes Prime Minister and requests that Bernard Woolley continue as his Principal Private Secretary. The first series of Yes, Prime Minister introduced Dorothy Wainwright (played by Deborah Norton ) as a highly able special political adviser to the Prime Minister. Her experience and insight into many civil service tricks ensures a lasting mutual distrust between her and Sir Humphrey and an invaluable second opinion for Hacker. [ 6 ] Sir Humphrey frequently annoys Dorothy by addressing her with a cry of "dear lady".
Hacker's home life is shown occasionally throughout the series. His wife Annie (Diana Hoddinott ) is clearly frustrated by the disruptions caused by her husband's political career and is at times somewhat cynical about her husband's politics. Meanwhile, his sociology student daughter, Lucy (Gerry Cowper ), becomes an environmental activist in one episode, campaigning against the Department's intention to remove protected status from a wooded area believed to be inhabited by badgers. Sir Humphrey falsely assures her there have not been badgers in the woods for some years, a deceit winked at by Hacker.
Sir Humphrey's personal characteristics include his complicated sentences, his ineffable snobbery, his cynical views of government, and his superciliousness. Hacker's attributes include occasional indecisiveness, and a tendency to launch into ludicrous Churchillian speeches. Bernard is apt to linguistic pedantry. All characters are able to switch to a completely opposite opinion in seconds when convenient.
Sir Humphrey often discusses matters with other Permanent Secretaries, who appear similarly sardonic and jaded, and the Cabinet Secretary (whom he eventually succeeds in Yes, Prime Minister ), Sir Arnold Robinson (John Nettleton ), an archetype of cynicism, haughtiness and conspiratorial expertise. This fairly counter-intuitive view of government administration is not only Sir Humphrey's: it is completely taken for granted by the civil service.
The Yes, Prime Minister episode "A Victory for Democracy " lampoons the Foreign Office bureaucracy's control of Britain's foreign policy and also their pro-Arab, anti-Israeli tendency which is seen to flow from a realist or cynical approach to foreign affairs. The episode, where Hacker is kept in the dark by the Foreign Office but can make an informed decision thanks to a conversation with the Israeli ambassador, is partly based on an actual incident narrated to Lynn by his uncle Abba Eban .
Another Yes, Prime Minister episode "The Bishop's Gambit " parodied Liberal Christianity and politics in the Church of England. Hacker thought that the church is a Christian institution but Sir Humphrey gleefully informs him that most of the Anglican bishops do not believe in God and that a theologian's job is partly to explain why an agnostic or atheist can be a church leader.
Almost all the episodes end with one of the characters (usually Sir Humphrey) saying "Yes, Minister" or "Yes, Prime Minister" accordingly (or "Mais oui, Prime Minister," in "A Diplomatic Incident" which centred on negotiations with the President of France). Each episode of the former was more or less self-contained, but the first series of Yes, Prime Minister had a loose story arc relating to Hacker's attempts to reform the United Kingdom's armed forces while the second was mostly devoted to concluding storylines and character arcs that had been seen over the course of the show.
Lynn joined the Cambridge Union in his first year at the University of Cambridge because he thought that he might like to enter politics. "All of the main debaters there, aged twenty, were the most pompous, self-satisfied, self-important bunch of clowns that I've ever clapped eyes on. They were all behaving as if they were on the government front bench, and twenty years later they all were: Michael Howard ; John Selwyn Gummer; Kenneth Clarke. I thought at that point that the only way that I could ever contribute to politics is making fun of the politicians." [ 6 ]
The series, then, intended to satirise politics and government in general, rather than any specific party. The writers placed Hacker at the centre of the political spectrum, and were careful to identify his party headquarters as "Central House" (a combination of Conservative Central Office and Labour's Transport House ). The terms "Labour " and "Conservative " are scrupulously avoided throughout the series, favouring terms such as "the party" or "the Government" and "the opposition." [ 1 ] In the first scene of the first episode, "Open Government ", Hacker is shown at the declaration of his constituency result wearing a white rosette. with other candidates sporting the red and blue rosettes associated with the two leading British parties. The one exception to this neutrality occurs very briefly in "The National Education Service ", when Sir Humphrey explains to Bernard how the policy of comprehensive education is retained through successive governments, using different arguments according to which party is in power. Even there, Humphrey does not reveal which party Jim Hacker represents. Despite this, the overall thrust was towards government reduction rather than expansion. The episode "Jobs for the Boys ", for example, rejected corporatism. Throughout the period of Yes Minister and Yes Prime Minister the incumbent government of the United Kingdom was Conservative with the government led by Thatcher.
In a 2004 documentary, Armando Iannucci compared Yes Minister to George Orwell 's Nineteen Eighty-Four in how it has influenced the public's view of the state. Although Lynn comments that the word "spin " has "probably entered the political vocabulary since the series," [ 4 ] Iannucci suggests that the show "taught us how to unpick the verbal tricks that politicians think they can get away with in front of the cameras." [ 6 ] The series depicted the media-consciousness of politicians, reflecting the public relations training they undergo to help them deal with interviews and reading from autocue effectively. This is particularly evident in the episode "The Ministerial Broadcast ", in which Hacker is advised on the effects of his clothes and surroundings. The episode "A Conflict of Interest " humorously lampoons the various political stances of Britain's newspapers through their readers (although this material was not original [ 7 ] ):
Hacker: Don't tell me about the press. I know exactly who reads the papers: the Daily Mirror is read by people who think they run the country; The Guardian is read by people who think they ought to run the country; The Times is read by people who actually do run the country; the Daily Mail is read by the wives of the people who run the country; the Financial Times is read by people who own the country; The Morning Star is read by people who think the country ought to be run by another country; and The Daily Telegraph is read by people who think it is.
Sir Humphrey: Prime Minister, what about the people who read The Sun ?
Bernard:Sun readers don't care who runs the country, as long as she's got big tits .
Adam Curtis. in his three-part TV documentary The Trap . criticised the series as "ideological propaganda for a political movement", [ 8 ] and claimed that Yes Minister is indicative of a larger movement of criticism of government and bureaucracy, centred upon public choice economics. This view has been supported by Jay himself:
The fallacy that public choice economics took on was the fallacy that government is working entirely for the benefit of the citizen; and this was reflected by showing that in any [episode] in the programme, in Yes Minister. we showed that almost everything that the government has to decide is a conflict between two lots of private interest – that of the politicians and that of the civil servants trying to advance their own careers and improve their own lives. And that's why public choice economics, which explains why all this was going on, was at the root of almost every episode of Yes Minister and Yes, Prime Minister. [ 9 ]Inspirations
The writers were inspired by a variety of sources, including sources inside government, published material and contemporary news stories. The writers also met several leading senior civil servants under the auspices of the Royal Institute of Public Administration, a think-tank for the public service sector, which led to the development of some plot lines. Some situations were conceived as fiction, but were later revealed to have real-life counterparts. The episode "The Compassionate Society " depicts a hospital with five hundred administrative staff but no doctors, nurses or patients. Lynn recalls that "after inventing this absurdity, we discovered there were six such hospitals (or very large empty wings of hospitals) exactly as we had described them in our episode." [ 4 ]
In a programme screened by the BBC in early 2004, paying tribute to the series, it was revealed that Jay and Lynn had drawn on information provided by two insiders from the governments of Harold Wilson and James Callaghan. namely Marcia Williams and Bernard Donoughue. [ 6 ] The published diaries of Richard Crossman also provided inspiration. [ 4 ] [ 10 ]
The episode entitled "The Moral Dimension ", in which Hacker and his staff engage in the scheme of secretly consuming alcohol on a trade mission to the fictional Islamic state of Qumran, was based on a real incident that took place in Pakistan. involving Callaghan and Donoughue, the latter of whom informed Jay and Lynn about the incident. [ 11 ] Jay says that "I can't tell you where, I can't tell you when and I can't tell you who was involved; all I can tell you is that we knew that it had actually happened. That's why it was so funny. We couldn't think up things as funny as the real things that had happened." [ 12 ] Media historian Andrew Crisell suggests that the show was "enriched by the viewers' suspicion that what they were watching was unhealthily close to real life." [ 13 ]
Fusing inspiration and invention, Lynn and Jay worked on the story "for anything from three days to two weeks," and only took "four mornings to write all the dialogue. After we wrote the episode, we would show it to some secret sources, always including somebody who was an expert on the subject in question. They would usually give us extra information which, because it was true, was usually funnier than anything we might have thought up." [ 4 ] Designers Valerie Warrender and Gloria Clayton were given access to the Cabinet Rooms and the State Drawing Rooms. For security purposes, the arrangements of the rooms were altered, and the views from the windows were never shown, in order to conceal the layout of the buildings. [ 14 ]Main characters James "Jim" Hacker
The three main characters in the Minister's Office of the Department of Administrative Affairs: from left, Sir Humphrey Appleby, Bernard Woolley and Jim Hacker .
The Rt Hon. Jim Hacker, Lord Hacker of Islington KG PC BSc (Paul Eddington ) was the editor of a newspaper, Reform. before entering government. He apparently spent a good deal of time in Parliament on the Opposition benches before his party won the general election. In Yes Minister he is the Minister for Administrative Affairs (a fictitious ministry of the British government) and a Cabinet Minister, and in Yes, Prime Minister he becomes the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Hacker received his degree from the London School of Economics (graduating with a Third ), for which he is often derided by the Oxford -educated Sir Humphrey (who attended the fictitious Baillie College graduating with a First in Classics). His early character is that of a gung-ho, but naïve, politician, bringing sweeping changes to his department. Before long, Hacker begins to notice that Civil Service tactics are preventing his planned changes being put into practice. As he learns he becomes more sly and cynical, and uses some of the Civil Service ruses himself. While Sir Humphrey initially held all the aces, Hacker now and again plays a trump card of his own.
Throughout Yes Minister Hacker is regularly portrayed as a publicity-mad bungler who is incapable of making a firm decision, prone to make potentially embarrassing blunders, and a frequent target of criticism from the press and stern lectures from the Chief Whip. However, in Yes, Prime Minister Hacker becomes more statesmanlike. He practises more grandiose speeches, dreams up his "grand design" and hones his diplomatic skills. Nearly all of these efforts land him in trouble. In a Radio Times interview to promote Yes, Prime Minister. Paul Eddington stated, "He's beginning to find his feet as a man of power, and he's begun to confound those who thought they'd be able to manipulate him out of hand." [ 15 ]Sir Humphrey Appleby
Sir Humphrey Appleby GCB. KBE. MVO. MA (Oxon) (Nigel Hawthorne ) serves throughout the series as Permanent Secretary under his Minister, Jim Hacker at the Department of Administrative Affairs. He is appointed Cabinet Secretary just as Hacker's party enters a leadership crisis, and is instrumental in Hacker's elevation to Prime Minister. He is committed to maintaining the status quo for the country in general and for the Civil Service in particular. [ 6 ] Sir Humphrey is a master of obfuscation and manipulation. baffling his opponents with technical jargon and circumlocutions, strategically appointing allies to supposedly impartial boards, and setting up interdepartmental committees to smother his Minister's proposals in red tape .
In Britain's Best Sitcom. Stephen Fry comments that "we love the idea of the coherence and articulacy of Sir Humphrey. it's one of the things you look forward to in an episode of Yes Minister. when's the big speech going to happen? And can I see if he's reading it from an idiot board. he's really learned it, and it's superb." [ 6 ] Derek Fowlds posited to a concerned Eddington that these speeches were the reason why Hawthorne won a BAFTA for Best Comedy Performance four times in a row, while Eddington, though nominated, didn't win at all. [ 6 ]
Loquacious and verbose, he frequently uses both his mastery of the English language and even his superb grasp of Latin and Greek grammar both to perplex his political master and to obscure the relevant issues. In a Radio Times interview to promote the second series of Yes, Prime Minister. producer Sydney Lotterby stated that he always tried to give Eddington and Hawthorne extra time to rehearse as their scenes invariably featured lengthy dialogue exchanges. [ 16 ]Bernard Woolley
Bernard Woolley (Derek Fowlds ) is Jim Hacker's Principal Private Secretary. His loyalties are therefore split between his Minister and his Civil Service boss, Sir Humphrey: while he is theoretically responsible to Hacker personally, it is Sir Humphrey who writes his performance reviews and influences Bernard's Civil Service career. This leads to difficult situations for the young civil servant. He usually handles these situations well, and maintains his reputation in the Civil Service as a "high flier" (as opposed to a "low flier supported by occasional gusts of wind"). [ 17 ]
Woolley is always quick to point out the physical impossibilities of Sir Humphrey's or Hacker's mixed metaphors, with almost obsessive pedantry. He can occasionally appear rather childlike, by making animal noises and gestures or by acting out how such an analogy cannot work, which sometimes annoys his Minister.
Woolley tends to side with Hacker when new policies are announced, because they seem radical or democratic, only for Sir Humphrey to point out the disadvantages to the status quo and the civil service in particular. To sway Bernard, Sir Humphrey uses phrases such as "barbarism" and "the beginning of the end". [ 18 ] At times when Sir Humphrey fails to get his way, Woolley can be seen smiling smugly at him over his defeat. [ 19 ]
In a 2004 retrospective, Armando Iannucci commented that Fowlds had a difficult task because he had to "spend most of his time saying nothing but looking interested in everyone else's total and utter guff" but "his one line frequently had to be the funniest of the lot." Iannucci suggests that Bernard is essential to the structure of the show because both Hacker and Appleby confide in him, "which means we get to find out what they're plotting next." [ 6 ]
The Editor's Note to The Complete Yes Prime Minister (supposedly published in 2024 after Hacker's death but actually published by the BBC in 1989), thanks "Sir Bernard Woolley GCB" for his help and confirms that he did indeed make it to the position of Head of the Civil Service. [ 20 ]Other characters
The series featured a cast of recurring characters.
Meanwhile, Sir Humphrey's civil service colleagues were regularly featured.
A total of thirty-eight episodes were made, and all but one are of 30 minutes' duration. They were videotaped in front of a studio audience, which was standard BBC practice for situation comedies at the time. The actors did not enjoy filming as they felt that the studio audience added additional pressure. Lynn, however, says that the studio audience on the soundtrack was necessary because laughter is a "communal affair." The laughter also acted as a kind of insurance: Jay observes that politicians would be unable to put pressure on the BBC not to "run this kind of nonsense" if "200–250 people were falling about with laughter." [ 6 ] There were occasionally film inserts of location sequences, and some shots of Hacker travelling in his car were achieved by means of chroma key. Each programme usually comprised around six scenes.
The pilot was produced in 1979 but not transmitted until 1980 in fear that it could influence the results of the 1979 UK General Election. [ 6 ] Yes Minister ran for three series, each of seven episodes, between 1980 and 1982. These were followed by two Christmas specials: one 10-minute sketch as part of an anthology presented by Frank Muir. [ 22 ] and then the hour-long "Party Games ", in 1984. The latter's events led to Hacker's elevation to Prime Minister, dovetailing into the sequel, Yes, Prime Minister. This ran for two series, each of eight episodes, from 1986 to 1988.Opening titles and music
Gerald Scarfe 's caricature of Paul Eddington as Hacker
The opening titles were drawn by artist Gerald Scarfe. who provided distinctive caricatures of Eddington, Hawthorne and Fowlds in their respective roles to represent distortion. [ 6 ] He animated them as 'self-drawing' by positioning the camera above his paper, adding parts of lines, and then photographing two frames at a time. The sequence ended with the title of the episode superimposed on a facsimile of an edition of the House of Commons Weekly Information Bulletin. Curiously, the legend Compiled in the Public Information Office of the House of Commons Library was left in the sequence. Scarfe created a second set of graphics for Yes, Prime Minister. including a different title card for each episode. Derek Fowlds wanted to buy an original drawing but was unable to afford it. [ 6 ] The series' performance credits typically only featured those of the actors who appeared in the particular episode, not the names of characters.
The theme music was composed by Ronnie Hazlehurst and is largely based on the Westminster Quarters. the chimes of Big Ben. When asked in an interview about its Westminster influence, Hazlehurst replied, "That's all it is. It's the easiest thing I've ever done." [ 23 ] Scarfe's and Hazlehurst's work was not used for the first episode, "Open Government ". The final version of the titles and music had yet to be agreed, and both differ substantially from those used for subsequent instalments. The opening and closing title caption cards feature drawings of most of the cast, but are less exaggerated than those of Scarfe, while the unaccredited music is a more up-tempo piece for brass band. The Scarfe and Hazlehurst credits were used for some repeat broadcasts of the first episode, but the original pilot credits were retained for the DVD release.
The series gained high audience figures, and 90+ on the audience Appreciation Index. [ 14 ] Critics, such as Andrew Davies in the Times Educational Supplement and Armando Iannucci, have noted that the show had high expectations of audience. [ 14 ] Lynn posits that the public are more intelligent than most situation comedies, often patronising, give them credit for. Jay believes that the viewers were just as intelligent as the writers, but that there were some things that they needed to know but didn't. [ 6 ]
Yes Minister won the BAFTA award for Best Comedy Series for 1980, 1981 and 1982, and the "Party Games" special was nominated in the Best Light Entertainment Programme category for 1984. Yes, Prime Minister was short-listed for Best Comedy Series for both 1986 and 1987. Nigel Hawthorne's portrayal of Sir Humphrey Appleby won the BAFTA Award for Best Light Entertainment Performance four times (in 1981, 1982, 1986 and 1987). Eddington was also nominated on all four occasions. [ 24 ] Yes Minister came sixth in a 2004 BBC poll to find 'Britain's Best Sitcom '. [ 25 ] In a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes drawn up by the British Film Institute in 2000, voted by industry professionals, Yes Minister and Yes, Prime Minister were jointly placed ninth. They were also placed 14th in Channel 4 's The Ultimate Sitcom. a poll conducted by people who work in sitcoms. [ 26 ]
The series have been cited by political scientists for their accurate and sophisticated portrayal of the relationships between civil servants and politicians, [ 27 ] and are quoted in some textbooks on British politics. [ 4 ] The series was highly rated by critics and politicians. The shows were very popular in government circles. The Guinness Television Encyclopedia suggests that "real politicians. enjoyed the show's cynical dismissal of Whitehall intrigue and its insights into the machinations of government." [ 28 ] Lord Donoughue, an admirer of the series who was head of James Callaghan 's policy unit at 10 Downing Street from 1976-9, noticed that, when the Labour Party returned to power in 1997 after 18 years in opposition, a number of junior Ministers took so seriously the relationships with civil servants as depicted by Jay and Lynn that they were unduly wary of senior officials and allowed this suspicion to influence their behaviour. [ 29 ]
Yes Minister and Yes Prime Minister were the favourite programme of then Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. She told The Daily Telegraph that "its clearly-observed portrayal of what goes on in the corridors of power has given me hours of pure joy." [ 14 ] Gerald Kaufman described it as "The Rt Hon. Faust MP, constantly beset by the wiles of Sir Mephistopheles ." [ 14 ] As a supporter of Thatcher, Jay embraced her appreciation, although the more leftist Lynn was concerned. [ 6 ]
Hawthorne and Eddington performing the sketch with Thatcher in January 1984.
Thatcher performed a short sketch with Eddington and Hawthorne on 20 January 1984 at a ceremony where the writers were presented with an award from Mary Whitehouse 's NVLA, [ 30 ] an event commemorated on the cover of the satirical magazine Private Eye. [ 31 ] Authorship of the sketch is unclear. In Britain's Best Sitcom. Bernard Ingham says that he wrote it; other sources give Thatcher sole credit, while Michael Cockerell says that she wrote it with Ingham's help. [ 3 ] Another source gives renegade credit to Charles Powell. [ 14 ] The actors, who were both starring in separate West End plays at the time, were not enthusiastic at the idea and asked Lynn to "get them out" of it. The writer, however, was not in a position to help. Hawthorne says he and Eddington resented Thatcher's attempts to "make capital" from their popularity. [ 12 ] Ingham says that it "went down a bomb", while Lynn brands it a "dreadful sketch" that was only funny because Thatcher was doing it. [ 6 ] Accepting the award from the NVLA, Lynn thanked Thatcher "for taking her rightful place in the field of situation comedy." Everyone, except the Prime Minister, laughed. [ 12 ]
When Paul Eddington visited Australia during the 1980s, he was treated as a visiting British PM by the then Australian leader, Bob Hawke. who was obviously a great fan of the show. At a rally, Hawke said "You don't want to be listening to me; you want to be listening to the real Prime Minister", forcing Eddington to improvise. [ 32 ] In an interview to promote the first series of Yes, Prime Minister. Derek Fowlds said that "both political sides believe that it satirises their opponents, and civil servants love it because it depicts them as being more powerful than either. And of course, they love it because it's all so authentic." [ 15 ] The series was well-received in the United States, running on the A&E Network and repeatedly on public television. [ 33 ]
The show has been remade several times, albeit sometimes unofficially. The first was the unofficial Canadian remake Not My Department . which only lasted one season and was ostensibly based on a novel unrelated to Yes, Minister. Rosenbaddarna (from 1990) was the Swedish unofficial remake. The title of the Portuguese remake, Sim, Sr. Ministro (from 1996), is a direct translation of the original's title. Ji, Mantriji (2001) was the remake in Hindi (with the BBC's permission) by STAR Plus. Rupert Murdoch 's Indian satellite TV channel. [ 34 ] Both Sir Humphrey and Jim Hacker are portrayed there by the same actors who dubbed them for the original. A computer game version of Yes Minister was released in 1987 for the Commodore 64. Amstrad CPC and ZX Spectrum. The premise was to survive one week in office as Jim Hacker. [ 35 ] In 2009, Israeli sitcom Polishook. explicitly modeled on Yes Minister. aired for a single season on Channel 2's Keshet Broadcasting. Also in 2009, it was announced that a Dutch remake would be made by S&V Fiction for VPRO. lasting 11 episodes. In the planned Dutch version, Sir Humphrey will be a woman and Bernard will be a Moroccan called Mohammed. [ 36 ]
In 2005, BBC Four launched The Thick of It . described by director Armando Iannucci as "Yes Minister meets Larry Sanders ", [ 37 ] and The Daily Telegraph called it "a Yes, Minister for the Labour years." [ 38 ] The style shows many identifiable hallmarks of Yes Minister. namely the blundering politician virtually entirely dependent on those whose presentational and political nous greatly eclipse his own limited abilities.Stage play (2010)
It was announced in early 2010 that Jay and Lynn would collaborate again to produce a stage play [ 39 ] which ran from 13 May to 5 June, at Chichester Festival Theatre. This production revived at the Gielgud Theatre. in London 's West End from 17 September 2010 until 15 January 2011. The principal cast was David Haig as Jim Hacker, Henry Goodman as Sir Humphrey, Jonathan Slinger as Bernard Woolley and Emily Joyce as Claire Sutton, Hacker's special policy advisor. [ 40 ] This production, while following the spirit and tone of the original series in many respects, was set contemporaneously at Chequers. the Prime Minister's country residence, with BlackBerrys frequently in evidence, [ 41 ] and even included a topical reference to a coalition agreement which Sir Humphrey had drafted (the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats having formed a coalition government in Britain in May 2010). [ 42 ] The plot was a little more provocative [ 43 ] and risqué than most of those seen previously (including a debate about the ethics of procuring a fifteen year old as a sexual partner for a visiting dignitary, [ 44 ] a proposition which Claire suggested might be spun in the national interest as a "euro-job" [ 45 ] ) and included some stronger expletives (reflecting perhaps their widely reported use among New Labour's hierarchy between 1997 and 2010 [ 46 ] ). There was also a higher element of traditional farce. [ 47 ]
The play features a new character, Claire Sutton, who is introduced by the Prime Minister as head of the policy unit at Number Ten. She is a 21st century successor to Dorothy Wainwright, but less haughty and seemingly more willing to get her hands dirty. She is described by Jay and Lynn as in her late thirties, attractive and intelligent. She calls Hacker by his first name ("Fiscal mechanics, Jim"), whereas Dorothy addressed him as "Prime Minister". In response to a sarcastic interjection about "starving permanent secretaries", Sir Humphrey patronises her as "dear lady" (as he did "that Wainwright female" in the TV series). [ 48 ] Emily Joyce, who played Claire both at Chichester and in London, was forty-one when the play opened. [ 49 ]
The play began a tour of the United Kingdom in February 2011, with Simon Williams as Sir Humphrey Appleby, [ 50 ] Richard McCabe as Jim Hacker [ 51 ] and Charlotte Lucas as Claire Sutton. It returned to the West End in July 2011 for a 10-week run at the Apollo Theatre in Shaftesbury Avenue, with Williams and McCabe reprising their roles. [ 52 ]
Reflecting in 2011 on the sustained topicality of Yes, Minister/Prime Minister. Jonathan Lynn noted that, since the opening of the stage show in Chichester, "all we've added is a couple of jokes about [telephone] hacking and an extra joke about the Greeks [subject at the time to a debt crisis]." He added that the original episodes were written about a year before transmission - "satirical comedy doesn't change" - and that "writing in 1986, we found the same headlines in 1956". [ 53 ]
Sixteen episodes [ 54 ] of Yes Minister were adapted and re-recorded for broadcast by BBC Radio 4. with the principal cast reprising their roles. Produced by Peter Atkin. they were broadcast across two seasons, each with eight episodes. [ 55 ] The first series aired 18 October to 7 December 1983, with the second originally transmitted 8 October to 27 November 1984. [ 1 ] The complete set was released on cassette in February 2000, and on compact disc in October 2002. The series was repeated on the digital radio station BBC 7 in early 2007.
In 1997, Derek Fowlds reprised the role of Bernard Woolley to read Antony Jay's How To Beat Sir Humphrey: Every Citizen's Guide To Fighting Officialdom. It was broadcast in three daily parts by Radio 4 from 29 September to 1 October 1997 [ 1 ] and released by BBC Audiobooks on cassette in October 1997.Merchandise Video and DVD releases
The BBC issued some episodes of Yes Minister. and all of Yes Prime Minister on VHS. [ 56 ] They were re-released and repackaged at various points. The complete collection was released by the BBC through Warner Home Video on Region 1 DVD in October 2003. Warner appears to have added RCE region coding to the individual release of the second series of Yes Minister. but there are no similar reported problems on playing the complete collection. [ 56 ] The BBC, through 2 Entertain Video, also issued several Region 2 DVDs:
Netflix streams both series to subscribers (as of August 2011, the series was no longer available to view via streaming). Computer users must use the Netflix player and Windows Media Player 11.Australian/New Zealand releases (Region 4)
Several books have been published surrounding the series. The scripts were edited and transformed into prose, and published by BBC Books in the form of diaries. Scenes that did not involve Hacker took the form of private memos between civil servants, or 'interviews' and written correspondence from other characters.
The three series of Yes Minister were published as paperbacks in 1981, 1982 and 1983 respectively before being combined into a revised hardback omnibus edition, The Complete Yes Minister: The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister. in 1984. Two volumes of Yes, Prime Minister: The Diaries of the Right Hon. James Hacker were published in 1986 and 1987, before being made available as an omnibus edition in 1988. Both series were published as omnibus paperback editions in 1989:
Antony Jay's How to Beat Sir Humphrey: Every Citizen's Guide to Fighting Officialdom (ISBN 0-9528285-1-0 ) was published in April 1997. It was illustrated by Gerald Scarfe and Shaun Williams. It was read by Derek Fowlds on Radio 4 later that year.
The "Yes Minister" Miscellany was released in October 2009.
The script of the play, Yes, Prime Minister. was published in paperback by Faber & Faber in 2010 (ISBN 978-0-571-26070-6 ).References
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